INDIAN SUBSIDIARY REGISTRATION
A Foreign National (other than a citizen of Pakistan or Bangladesh) or an entity incorporated outside India (other than entity incorporated in Pakistan or Bangladesh) can invest and own a Company in India by acquiring shares of the Indian company, subject to the FDI Policy of India. Also, a minimum of one Indian Director who is a Indian Director and Indian Resident is required for incorporation of an Indian Company along with an address in India.
INDIA ENTRY STRATEGIES FOR FOREIGN CORPORATES
Private Limited Company
Incorporation of a private limited company is the easiest and fastest type of India entry strategy for foreign nationals and foreign companies. Foreign direct investment of up to 100% into a private limited company or limited company is allowed under the automatic route, wherein no Central Government permission is required. Hence, incorporation of a private limited company as a wholly-owned subsidiary of a foreign company or joint venture is the cheapest, easiest and fastest entry strategy for foreign corporations into India.
Incorporation of a LLP
Incorporation of a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) is also an India entry strategy for foreign nationals or foreign citizens as 100% FDI in LLP is now allowed. An LLP, however, cannot have shareholders and must be represented by Partners – thereby making it an ideal choice for investment vehicles and professional firms.
Proprietorship or Partnership Firm
Proprietorship firms or Partnership firms are the most basic types of business entities used by the businesses in very small way and its not advisable to Invest the money as a FDI form . Foreign investment into a proprietorship firm or partnership firm requires prior RBI approval. Hence, proprietorship firms or partnership firms are not suitable for a foreign corporation or foreign national investment into India.
FDI IN PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANY
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into an Indian Private Limited Company or Limited Company is allowed up to 100% in most sectors. Only a very few industries require prior Central Government approval for investment by a foreign company or foreign national.
- Investing in companies in Infrastructure
- Defense and strategic industries
- Atomic minerals
- Print Media
- Postal Services
- Courier Services
- Establishment and operation of Satellite
- Development of Integrated township
- Tea Sector
- Assets Reconstruction companies
MANAGEMENT AND SHAREHOLDING STRUCTURE
A private limited company must have a minimum of two Shareholders and two Directors. A shareholder can be a person or a corporate entity. However, the Director has to be a person. Foreign nationals are allowed to become Directors of an Indian Private Limited Company.
The Board of Directors of the Indian Private Limited Company must have one Director who is both an Indian Citizen and Indian Resident. However, there is no requirement for the Indian Director to be a shareholder in the company. Hence, most foreign companies or foreign nationals prefer to incorporate a company in India with three Directors – two Foreign National Directors and one Indian National Director.
The 100% shares of the Indian Company can be held by a combination of Foreign Companies and/or Foreign Nationals. Indian private limited companies require a minimum of two shareholders mandatorily. Hence, one corporate entity or person cannot hold all the shares of an Indian Private Limited Company.
OBTAINING DIGITAL SIGNATURE FOR FOREIGN NATIONAL DIRECTORS
A digital signature is required for filing the incorporation documents and continued compliance documents for a company. Hence, Digital Signatures must be obtained for one or more Director(s) of the company.
The following documents and information are required for obtaining Digital Signature for a foreign national:
Foreign national is residing in the native country
- Proof of identity, address proof and photo on DSC application should be notarized by the Public Notary of that foreign country and apostil led by the competent authority of that foreign
- Passport copy and application form with Photo (all attested).
Foreign national residing in India
The following documents should be certified by Individual’s Embassy
- Resident Permit certificate issued by Assistant Foreigner Regional Registration Officer, an officer of Bureau of Immigration India.
- Application form with Photo (attested)
In parallel to the digital signature application process, name approval can be obtained for the proposed company. The name of the Indian Company must be unique and should end with the words “Private Limited”. Click here to know more about Naming an Indian Private Limited Company.
FILING FOR INCORPORATION OF A PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANY
Once name approval is obtained, incorporation documents can be filed with the Ministry of Corporate Affairs to incorporate the company. The incorporation documents to be filed includes affidavits & declarations from Directors, Memorandum of Association, Articles of Association and Registered Office Address proof.
The affidavit and declarations from the Directors contain certain declaration from the Directors. Affidavit and declaration would have to be executed independently for each of the Director and notarized.
MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION (MOA) & ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION (AOA)
By subscribing to the MOA & AOA, the shareholders (either foreign companies or foreign nationals or Indian companies or Indian national) show their intention for becoming a shareholder in the company to be incorporated.
In case a Foreign Company is a subscriber to the MOA & AOA of the proposed Indian Company, the following documents pertaining to the foreign entity subscribing to the shares of the Indian Company must be submitted:
- Board resolution of the Foreign Entity authorizing investment in shares of the Indian Company.
- Copy of the certificate of incorporation of the foreign entity.
- Copy of address proof for the foreign company.
On submitting the above documents along with the application for incorporation of a company, the Registrar would issue a Certificate of Incorporation for the Indian Private Limited Company, if the documents submitted are acceptable.
After obtaining the incorporation certificate, the Indian Company can apply for a PAN Card and take the necessary steps for opening a bank account for the company in India.